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Optimum Loudspeaker Directional Patterns

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In stereophonic sound reproduction, the loudspeaker placement and directional patterns combine to create the sound fields used by a listener to locate the apparent source of sound. Accurate localization requires that the loudspeaker directional pattern be designed to take into account the human directional hearing mechanism. A model of human auditory localization is described and then used as a basis for optimizing loudspeaker directional patterns to permit accurate localization over a wide range of listener positions. The results show that loudspeakers should be more directional than current designs, and that the loudspeakers should be angled in toward the listening area.

JAES Volume 28 Issue 11 pp. 787-794; November 1980
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AES - Audio Engineering Society