AES Journal Forum

Performance of Linear Extrapolation Methods for Virtual Sound Field Navigation

Document Thumbnail

Performance errors are characterized for two representative linear extrapolation methods for virtual navigation of higher-order ambisonics sound fields. For such methods, navigation is theoretically restricted to within the so-called region of validity, which extends spherically from the recording ambisonics microphone to its nearest source, but the precise consequences of violating that restriction has not been previously established. To that end, the errors introduced by each method are objectively evaluated in terms of metrics for sound level, spectral coloration, source localization, and diffuseness, through numerical simulations over a range of valid and invalid conditions. Under valid conditions, results show that the first method, based on translating along plane-waves, accurately reproduces both the level and localization of a source, whereas the second method, based on ambisonics translation coefficients, incurs significant errors in both level and spectral content that increase steadily with translation distance. Under invalid conditions, two common features of the performance of both methods are identified: significant localization errors are introduced and the reproduced level is too low. It is argued that these penalties are inherent to all methods that are bound by the region of validity restriction, including all linear extrapolation methods.

Open Access


JAES Volume 68 Issue 3 pp. 138-156; March 2020
Publication Date:

Download Now (1.6 MB)

This paper is Open Access which means you can download it for free.

No AES members have commented on this paper yet.

Subscribe to this discussion

RSS Feed To be notified of new comments on this paper you can subscribe to this RSS feed. Forum users should login to see additional options.

Start a discussion!

If you would like to start a discussion about this paper and are an AES member then you can login here:

If you are not yet an AES member and have something important to say about this paper then we urge you to join the AES today and make your voice heard. You can join online today by clicking here.

AES - Audio Engineering Society