AES Journal Forum

Level and Time Panning of Phantom Images for Musical Sources

Document Thumbnail

The localization behaviors of panning based on interchannel level difference (ICLD) and interchannel time difference (ICTD) at different target image positions were investigated using musical sources with different spectral and temporal characteristics as well as a wideband speech source. The results indicate that a level panning can perform robustly regardless of the spectral and temporal characteristics of source signals, whereas time panning is not suitable for a continuous source with a high fundamental frequency. Statistical differences between the data obtained for different sources were found to be insignificant, and a unified set of ICLD and ICTD values for 10°, 20°, and 30° image positions was derived. Linear level and time panning functions for the two separate panning regions of 0°–20° and 21°–30° are further proposed, and their applicability to arbitrary loudspeaker base angle is also considered. These perceptual panning functions are expected to be more accurate than the theoretical sine or tangent law in terms of matching between predicted and actually perceived image positions.

JAES Volume 61 Issue 12 pp. 978-988; December 2013
Publication Date:

Click to purchase paper as a non-member or you can login as an AES member to see more options.

No AES members have commented on this paper yet.

Subscribe to this discussion

RSS Feed To be notified of new comments on this paper you can subscribe to this RSS feed. Forum users should login to see additional options.

Start a discussion!

If you would like to start a discussion about this paper and are an AES member then you can login here:

If you are not yet an AES member and have something important to say about this paper then we urge you to join the AES today and make your voice heard. You can join online today by clicking here.

AES - Audio Engineering Society