In This Section
Perceptual Effects of Dynamic Range Compression in Popular Music Recordings - January 2014
Accurate Calculation of Radiation and Diffraction from Loudspeaker Enclosures at Low Frequency - June 2013
New Measurement Techniques for Portable Listening Devices: Technical Report - October 2013
AES Journal Forum
Level and Time Panning of Phantom Images for Musical Sources
The localization behaviors of panning based on interchannel level difference (ICLD) and interchannel time difference (ICTD) at different target image positions were investigated using musical sources with different spectral and temporal characteristics as well as a wideband speech source. The results indicate that a level panning can perform robustly regardless of the spectral and temporal characteristics of source signals, whereas time panning is not suitable for a continuous source with a high fundamental frequency. Statistical differences between the data obtained for different sources were found to be insignificant, and a unified set of ICLD and ICTD values for 10°, 20°, and 30° image positions was derived. Linear level and time panning functions for the two separate panning regions of 0°–20° and 21°–30° are further proposed, and their applicability to arbitrary loudspeaker base angle is also considered. These perceptual panning functions are expected to be more accurate than the theoretical sine or tangent law in terms of matching between predicted and actually perceived image positions.
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