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The Design of Precisely Coincident Microphone Arrays for Stereo and Surround Sound

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So called "coincident" microphone arrays are often used for recording stereo or surround sound. Experience has shown that two of the main causes of poor image localization and of spurious secondary images are: 1) the usual capsule spacing of 3 to 10 cm, and 2) poor polar diagrams and polar phase responses in the treble. These defects also cause a significant degradation in the tonal quality if a stereo or surround sound recording is mixed down to mono or matrixed either to modify the recording's stereo effect or for 2-channel quadraphonic encoding.

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AES - Audio Engineering Society