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Modeling the Attenuation of a Loosely-Fit Insert Headphone for Augmented Reality Audio

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In Augmented Reality Audio (ARA) headsets a small microphone is integrated with an earphone. In a normal listening situation the microphone signals are directly connected to the earphones, thus the sound wave passes the headset electrically from the microphone to the earphone. However, headsets do not seal the ear canal completely, and a portion of impinging sound wave is transmitted to the ear canal as leakage around and through the headset. The characteristics of these leakage paths must be known in order to make the ARA-headset acoustically transparent. In this paper a model for leakage in loosely-fit insert headphones is introduced. The model is compared to measurement results performed with an artificial head and ear simulator. The results show that the model is capable of predicting the acoustics behavior of leakage with different types of loosely-fit insert headphones in the frequency range up to 6-7 kHz.

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